- Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) – Is one of the most naturally potent liver carcinogen produced by Aspergillus flavus and parastiticus.
- It is found on food stuffs such as most grains and grains for animal feed. Corn and peanuts have the highest concentrations. Organic foods may have more aflatoxin.
- AFB1 is upregulated via P450 cytochromes to it potent epoxide form and downregulated to less toxic forms.
- Treatment involves conjugation of the toxin to glucuronic acid, sulfate or glutathione through the bile.
Aflatoxin B1 is an extremely potent carcinogen produced by Aspergillus flavus and parastiticus as well as other minor Aspergillus species. It grows on food stuffs including: corn, millet, rice, wheat, oilseeds (soybeans sunflower, cotton, peanut), spices (chile peppers, black pepper, coriander, turmeric, ginger) tree nuts (almond, pistachio, walnut, coconut, brazil nut) bean and cocoa beans. It is found in animal meats and dairy. Concentrations are highly regulated. Organic foods will may have more mycotoxins. Acute Sxs (aflatoxicosis) include: Abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, hepatic necrosis, fever, pulmonary edema, digestive sxs, convulsions, limb swelling. Chronic Sxs include: liver cancer, lung cancer, infant mortality, extrahepatic cancers. Treatment: conjugation of the toxin to glucuronic acid, sulfate or glutathione through the bile. Reabsorption is possible. Substances that have been reported to increase GSTs are
Lemongrass oil from Cymbopogon citratus, Alpinia galangal and Otipraz. Flavinols such as robinetin, quercetin, fistetin and rutin are known to work against AFB1 mutagencity. Chinese herbs that inhibit AFB1 -DNA binding are Oldenlanda diffuse, Scuttelaria barbata, Astragalus membranaces, Ligustrum lucidum. Curcumin, turmeric, ellagic acids inhibit fatty acid changes caused by AFB1, and inhibit necrosis and biliary hperpasia. Protective compounds include ethoxyquin, BHA, olitoplraz, phenobarbital, boron and chlorophyllin. AFB1 converts to its reactive epoxide forms by P450 dependent systems forming derivatives with cellular marcomolecules including DNA, RNA and protein. Additional catalyzation can occur via hydroxylation to AFQ1 and AFM1 and demethylation to AFP1.